Today I have some notes on Zechariah and Luke 11 that I’d like to share.


In the Old Testament, there are many references to horns because the horn symbolizes power and strength. In Zechariah 1, we see four horns mentioned.

Then I looked up, and there before me were four horns.

Zechariah 1:18 (NIV)

In addition to these four horns, four craftsmen are mentioned.

Then the Lord showed me four craftsmen.

Zechariah 1:20 (NIV)

In verse 18, the four horns represent the nations that scattered Judah (Zechariah 1:19). These could be Egypt, Assyria, Persia, and Babylon. The four craftsmen represent human powers positioned by God to overthrow the four horns.

Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right side to accuse him.

Zechariah 3:1 (NIV)

The Joshua mentioned here is not the same Joshua who followed Moses and led the Israelites into The Promised Land. This Joshua is mentioned in Haggai 1:1 and in the book of Ezra.

Luke 11

For as Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites, so also will the Son of Man be to this generation.

Luke 11:30 (NIV)

Jonah was a sign in two ways. First, Jonah 1:17 tells us that he was in the belly of the fish for 3 days and 3 nights. Jesus, as a sign of Jonah, would also be in the grave for the same time. Jonah was considered dead when the men threw him overboard. However, Jonah did not die but lived. Jesus was considered dead when he died on the cross, but He rose from the dead. Secondly, Jonah preached to the Ninevites that they would all die at a particular time. The Ninevites listened to what Jonah said, and they believed God. They repented and were saved from the disaster Jonah had warned them about. Jesus, in a similar way, is telling us that we need to repent and turn to God because if we don’t, we, too, are going to die forever and go to hell.

“Woe to you, because you are like unmarked graves, which people walk over without knowing it.”

Luke 11:44 (NIV)

After being invited to a Pharisees’ home to eat, Jesus sits down to eat without first washing his hands. The Pharisees believed that they would become unclean if they didn’t go through a ceremonial washing before eating. Jesus, therefore, brings the Pharisees’ hypocrisy to light by pointing out the hypocritical things they do in the form of “woes.” Leviticus 21:11 declares that going near a dead body would make the person unclean. Thus, if someone walked over a grave, they would be near a dead body and be unclean. Pharisees are like unmarked graves making people unclean without the people knowing it.

These are my notes for today. Thanks for stopping by.